Isingeniso sezibalo Yini ukubaluleka kwezibalo ezimpilweni zethu?

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2024-01-28T15:30:06+02:00
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samar samIhlolwe ngu adminSepthemba 17, 2023Isibuyekezo sokugcina: ezinyangeni ezi-6 ezedlule

Isingeniso sezibalo

Izibalo ingenye yesayensi endala futhi eyisisekelo esetshenziselwa ukuhlaziya nokufunda ubudlelwano nobujamo bomthamo. Ulimi olusetshenziswa abantu ukuze baqonde futhi bathole amaphethini aphathekayo nangaphatheki emhlabeni esiphila kuwo. Akulona nje iqoqo lezinombolo namafomula, kodwa liyithuluzi elinamandla elakhiwe umuntu ukuze aqonde ukuhleleka kwezinto futhi afinyelele amaqiniso.

Nakhu ukubuka okusheshayo kweminye imiqondo eyisisekelo emhlabeni wezibalo:

  1. Izinombolo: Izinombolo zithathwa njengesango lezwe lezibalo. Zihlanganisa izigaba ezihlukahlukene njengezinombolo zemvelo, izinombolo eziphelele, izinombolo zamadesimali, nezinombolo ezicatshangelwayo. Ngenxa yala makilasi, singazama ukubala, ukulinganisa, ukuhlela nokwenza imisebenzi yezibalo ehlukahlukene.
  2. Ubunjiniyela: Ubunjiniyela buphathelene nocwaningo lomumo wejometri, izikhala, nezakhiwo. Ihlanganisa amagatsha afana nejiyomethri eyisisekelo, i-algebraic geometry, kanye nejometri ehlukile. Ijiyomethri iyindlela enamandla yokuqonda umhlaba osizungezile, njengoba sibona izimo zemvelo, siqinisekise ukufaneleka kwezakhiwo kanye nokuklama izinto.
  3. I-Algebra: I-Algebra ifunda izinombolo, okuguquguqukayo, nobudlelwano phakathi kwazo. I-Algebra ingasetshenziswa ukuxazulula izibalo nokuhlaziya amamodeli ayinkimbinkimbi. I-Algebra ingenye yezisekelo zezibalo futhi isetshenziswa emikhakheni eyahlukene, kusukela ku-physics kuya kwisayensi yekhompyutha.
  4. Amathuba: Amathuba aphathelene nokufunda izehlakalo ezingahleliwe nokulinganisa amathuba okuba zenzeka. Lawa magatsha abalulekile ekuhlaziyeni ubungozi, ekuthathweni kwezinqumo nasekuklanyweni kwezibalo.
  5. Izibalo: Izibalo ziyindlela yokuqoqa, ukuhlaziya nokuhumusha idatha. Izibalo zisetshenziswa emikhakheni eminingi njengesayensi yezokuhlalisana kwabantu, ezomnotho, ezokwelapha, kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwenqubo.
  6. I-Calculus: Izifundo ze-Calculus ziyashintsha futhi zilinganise ngamanani. Le branching isetshenziswa emikhakheni eminingi efana nefiziksi, ubunjiniyela, kanye nebhayoloji ukuqonda ukuziphatha kwezinto ezimeni ezahlukahlukene.

Kuyini ukubaluleka kwezibalo ezimpilweni zethu?

Izibalo ingenye yesayensi endala kunazo zonke eyaziwa isintu, futhi idlala indima ebalulekile ekuphileni kwethu kwansuku zonke. Sizobuyekeza ukubaluleka kwezibalo ezimpilweni zethu nokuthi zithinta kanjani izici ezahlukahlukene zempilo yethu.

  1. Thuthukisa ukucabanga okujulile:
    Ukufunda izibalo kuthuthukisa ukucabanga kwethu okujulile, njengoba abantu befunda ukuhlaziya nokucabanga ngendlela enengqondo ekuxazululeni izinkinga. Izibalo ziqeqesha izingqondo zethu ukuba zicabange ngendlela enenjongo futhi ehlelekile, futhi lokhu kusenza sikwazi ukuxazulula izinkinga ngokuphumelelayo kuzo zonke izici zokuphila.
  2. Ukuthuthukisa amakhono ezemidlalo:
    Izibalo zisiza ukuthuthukisa amakhono ethu ezibalo kanye nezinombolo. Lawa makhono ayadingeka ukubhekana nemisebenzi eminingi namabhizinisi adinga ikhono lokwenza izibalo ezinembile. Ukwengeza, amakhono ezibalo nawo abalulekile empilweni yansuku zonke, njengokuphatha ibhajethi yomuntu siqu kanye nokuphatha ezezimali nokutshala imali.
  3. Ukuqonda umhlaba:
    Izibalo zineqhaza ekuqondeni nasekuchazeni izici eziningi zomhlaba osizungezile. Zisisiza siqonde izinqubo zemvelo, ezinjengokunyakaza komzimba, imithetho yokunyakaza, namathuba, kanye nemiqondo etholakala ku-physics, chemistry, nezibalo.
  4. Ukuthuthukiswa kwezobuchwepheshe:
    Izibalo zidlala indima ebalulekile ekuthuthukisweni kwezobuchwepheshe, futhi ukuhlela nokuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe obuningi kudinga ukuqonda okujulile kwezibalo. Ngakho-ke, sithola ukuthi izibalo zikhona emikhakheni eminingi yezobuchwepheshe njengokuthuthukiswa kwesofthiwe, amanethiwekhi, ubuhlakani bokwenziwa, i-cryptography, nezinye eziningi.
  5. ukuthuthukiswa kwesayensi:
    Izibalo zithathwa njengelinye lamathuluzi abaluleke kakhulu ekuthuthukisweni kwesayensi. Banikela ekuxazululeni izinkinga futhi banikeze amamodeli achazayo ezinto eziyinkimbinkimbi zesayensi. Ngenxa yezibalo, singakwazi ukuqonda futhi sibikezele ukuziphatha kwezinhlelo nezimo emikhakheni eminingi efana ne-physics, ubunjiniyela, ne-biology.
Kuyini ukubaluleka kwezibalo ezimpilweni zethu?

Into enhle kakhulu eshiwo kwizibalo?

  1. "Izibalo ziwulimi, olukhulunywa indawo yonke." - UGalileo Galilei
    Lesi sisho siveza indima ebalulekile edlalwa imathematika ekuqondeni inqubo yokusebenzisana phakathi kwezigigaba nezehlakalo ezenzeka endaweni yonke.
  2. “Izibalo ezinhle, ezithokozisayo, ezomuntu othanda ukucabanga ngendlela ehlanzekile engqondweni.” - UPaul Ardesh
    Lesi sicaphuni sibonisa intshiseko nokuthakasela kuka-Paul Ardèche, owayengomunye wongoti bezibalo abakhulu bekhulunyaka lamashumi amabili, ngobuhle nokuphelela kwezibalo.
  3. "Izibalo ziwulimi olusondela eduze nesithombe sangempela somqondo womuntu." - UJock Mark
    Lesi sicaphuni sibonisa enye yezimpawu zezibalo ezisisiza ukuthi siqonde ukucabanga kwabantu futhi sihlaziye imicabango yabo kanye nokuhleleka kokucabanga kwabo.
  4. “Kuyindida yezibalo, kodwa iyindida emangaza lokho kuba khona futhi ivuse ukutuseka kuyo.” - UDavid Hilbert
    Lesi sicaphuni sibonisa ubunkimbinkimbi beminye imiqondo nezindida zezibalo, okuvusa ukuthakasela futhi kuphakamisa izinga lenselele nesasasa kubacwaningi nalabo abanentshisekelo kukho.
  5. “Izibalo azilokothi ziqambe amanga; "Uma ekunikeza impendulo, impendulo efanele." -George Polya
    Lesi sicaphuni sibonisa ukunemba nokunemba kwezibalo, lapho yonke imiphumela yezibalo iphelele futhi ilungile.
  6. “Ukwethenjwa okuphelele kungabekwa ezibalweni, ngoba azikwazi ukuqamba amanga.” - UCarl Friedrich Gauss
    Lesi sicaphuni sisho ukwethenjwa nokuthembeka izibalo ezinakho, okusivumela ukuthi sithole imiphumela enembayo ngokusekelwe emithethweni yayo eqinile.
  7. "Umdlalo wezibalo uqala njengephrojekthi yokudala ukuhleleka ngaphandle kwesiphithiphithi." – Stanislaw Ulam
    Lesi sicaphuni sigqamisa umqondo wokuhlela kabusha kanye nenhlangano eyenziwa yizibalo ekuhlaziyeni nasekuqondeni izinkinga nezinselelo.
  8. "Izibalo inkundla yokudlala yezingqondo ezinolaka kakhulu nezobuciko." -Chandra Mohan
    Lesi sisho siveza ubuhlakani obubonisa izibalo, njengoba kudinga ukuxazulula izinkinga eziyinkimbinkimbi nokuthola amamodeli nemibono emisha.
Into enhle kakhulu eshiwo kwizibalo?

Ubani owaba ngowokuqala ukuthola izibalo?

  1. I-Thales of Miletus: I-Thales yaseMilethu ibhekwa njengenye yezibalo zokuqala emlandweni. Wazalwa ngekhulu lesithupha BC eGrisi. Wakha umzamo wokuqala wokufakazela umthetho wokuqala ka-Bezos futhi akhe uhlu lwezinombolo eziyinhloko.
  2. I-Pythagoras: I-Pythagoras ibhekwa njengenye yezibalo ezidume kakhulu emlandweni. Waphila ekhulwini lesithupha BC esiqhingini saseSamos eGreece. Utuswa ngokuthola uhlelo lwe-trigonometric olunegama lakhe, olusetshenziswa kakhulu ekubalweni kobunjiniyela.
  3. U-Archimedes: U-Archimedes wayengusosayensi ongumGreki nesazi sezibalo owayehlala ekhulwini lesi-3 BC. Ubhekwa njengomunye wababambe iqhaza abavelele kwizibalo ne-physics. Wathuthukisa imikhakha ehlukahlukene efana nokubala okubalulekile, isimiso sikaBozzano, kanye nomthetho wamasondo.
  4. U-Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khwarizmi: U-Al-Khwarizmi wayeyisazi sezibalo sasePheresiya, isazi sefilosofi nososayensi owayephila ngekhulu lesi-9 AD. Waba nesandla ekuthuthukisweni kwe-algebra, futhi wabhala incwadi ethi “The Book of Anatomy and Geometry,” engenye yezincwadi zezibalo ezibaluleke kakhulu zeNkathi Ephakathi.
  5. UCarl Friedrich Gauss: UGauss wayeyisazi sezibalo saseJalimane sekhulu le-19, isazi sefiziksi kanye nesazi sezinkanyezi. Wakha izinkolelo-mbono eziningi ezibalulekile zezibalo, futhi phakathi kwemisebenzi yakhe edume kakhulu kukhona ithiyori ebekiwe kanye nokuhlaziywa kwenodali.
Ubani owaba ngowokuqala ukuthola izibalo?

Kungani izibalo ziqanjwa ngaleli gama?

Igama elithi “mathematics” lihlehlela emuva emlandweni okude lapho iGrisi yasendulo yayibhekwa njengesikhungo esiphambili sempucuko. Ngalesi sikhathi izibalo zaziwa ngegama lesiGreki elithi “μαθηματική” (mathēmatikḗ), elalibhekisela “kukufunda” noma “ulwazi”. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, leli gama liye lavela futhi ladlulela ezilimini eziningi ngokuhlukahluka okuhlukile.

Ukudluliselwa kokuqala kwegama elifanele kwenzeka lapho ulwazi lwesiGrikhi ludluliselwa kuma-Arabhu, ngakho-ke i-“μαθηματική” yayibizwa ngokuthi “ijometri yezibalo” emhlabeni wamaSulumane. Izazi zama-Arabhu zathuthukisa futhi zadlulisela ulwazi lwesiGreki eYurophu ngeNkathi Ephakathi, futhi kungalesi sikhathi lapho umqondo wesimanje wezibalo wagqama khona.

Ekuqaleni kwenkathi yanamuhla, izibalo zaqala ukufundiswa emanyuvesi aseYurophu ngaphandle kwesayensi yonke. Ngaleso sikhathi, kwakukhona inhlangano yalesi sayensi, njengoba ososayensi bakha isimiso semiqondo, izimiso nezindlela ezisetshenziswa ekutadisheni izinombolo kanye nejometri, ukuze kuzuzwe ukuthuthukiswa kwezibalo.

Igama elithi “Mathematics” livela egameni lamazwe amabili elithi “Mathema,” okuyigama lesiGreki elisho “izibalo.” Leli gama selidume umhlaba wonke ngale sayensi. Izibalo sezisabalele emazwenikazi ahlukene, futhi seziwulimi olujwayelekile kososayensi nabacwaningi emhlabeni wonke.

Ayini amagatsha ezibalo?

  1. i-akhawunti:
    Ibhekene nemisebenzi eyisisekelo njengokwengeza, ukususa, ukuphindaphinda, nokuhlukanisa, kanye ne-squaring, izimpande eziyisikwele, namaphesenti. I-Arithmetic ihlanganisa nocwaningo lwama-integers, amafrakshini, namadesimali.
  2. I-Algebra:
    Icwaninga ubudlelwano bezibalo, ukulinganisa kwazo, kanye nezakhiwo, njenge-arithmetic efanayo, imvume, nokulingana. I-Algebra isebenzisana nama-equations, differentials, regressors, matrices, nemisebenzi.
  3. Ubunjiniyela:
    Igxile ocwaningweni lobujamo bejometri nezakhiwo zabo. Amagatsha obunjiniyela ahlanganisa ijometri eyisisekelo, i-2D ne-3D geometry, i-analytical geometry, i-space geometry kanye namaqembu e-epistemological.
  4. Izibalo:
    Igxile kakhulu ekutadisheni ukushintshwa kwamanani kanye nezicelo zabo. Izindlela zokucwaninga ezihlukene zokubala ushintsho ngokuphathelene nesikhathi noma ibanga, kuyilapho ukuhlanganisa kuvula iminyango yokubala izindawo, amavolumu, nokuqanjwa.
  5. Umehluko:
    Lesi sigaba sihlanganisa ucwaningo lwezakhiwo zezinguquko ezisheshayo phakathi kwamanani aseduze. Isetshenziswa kabanzi ekuxazululeni izinkinga ezihlobene nezinguquko nezibonelo.
  6. Izibalo:
    Iphathelene nokuqoqa, ukuhlaziya, ukuhumusha kanye nokuchaza idatha. Izibalo zisetshenziselwa ukutadisha izenzakalo ezingenzeka kanye nokusetshenziswa kwazo emikhakheni eyahlukene.
  7. Izibalo ezihlukene:
    Lawa magatsha asekelwe ocwaningweni lwezibalo oluqukethe okuphuma kokunye okungaziwa. Isetshenziselwa ukuchaza izinqubo eziguquguqukayo namamodeli ayinkimbinkimbi ku-physics, ubunjiniyela, nakweminye imikhakha.

Yiziphi izinzuzo zezibalo?

  1. Abstract: Izibalo zithathwa njengesihloko esingabonakali, njengoba sisebenzisa izimpawu nezibalo ukubhekana nazo. Lokhu kunomthelela ekuthuthukiseni ikhono lethu lokucabanga ngokusobala kanye nokuhlaziya imiqondo enzima.
  2. Ukuthuthukisa amakhono engqondo: Izibalo zisiza ukuthuthukisa amakhono engqondo njengokucabanga okujulile, ukuxazulula izinkinga, nokuhleleka. Kusishukumisela ukuba sifinyelele iziphetho ezifanele kanye nokubonisana, kuthuthukisa ikhono lokuveza ngokucacile nokuthuthukisa ukucabanga okunengqondo.
  3. Ukuthuthukisa intuition: Izibalo zibhekwa njengenye yezifundo ezithuthukisa intuition kanye ne-acmen ekuxazululeni izinkinga. Lapho sizijwayeza ukucabanga ngezibalo, sifunda ukunquma ngokushesha nangokunembile.
  4. Ukuhleleka nokuxhumana: Izibalo zineqhaza ekwandiseni ukuhleleka nokuxhumana ezimpilweni zethu zansuku zonke. Isifundisa indlela yokuhlela isikhathi sethu, ukuphatha isabelomali sethu, nokuxazulula izinkinga eziyinkimbinkimbi ngezindlela ezihlelekile.
  5. Ukuxhumana nezinye isayensi: Izibalo wulimi lwendalo nesayensi. Ihlobene eduze neziyalo eziningi ezifana ne-physics, chemistry kanye nesayensi yekhompyutha. Ngakho-ke, ukufunda izibalo kungavula iminyango yokuqonda okujulile ngezwe elisizungezile.
  6. Ukuvumelana nezimo nokusebenza okungokoqobo: Izibalo zibonakala ngokuguquguquka nokusebenza okungokoqobo. Ayigcini nje ngezinombolo nezimpawu kuphela, kodwa ingasetshenziswa ukuxazulula izinkinga zangempela kanye nezinhlelo zokusebenza ezihlukahlukene ezifana nomklamo wobunjiniyela kanye nocwaningo lwemisebenzi.

Izibalo zenzani engqondweni?

  1. Thuthukisa ikhono lokucabanga elijulile: Ukufunda izimo nezinombolo kunomthelela ekuthuthukiseni ikhono lakho lokucabanga ngokunengqondo nangokuhlolisisa. Ukujwayela ukuxazulula izinkinga zezibalo kukwenza ukwazi ukuhlaziya izinkinga nokwenza ukuhlola okuphelele kwesimo sisonke.
  2. Thuthukisa inkumbulo namakhono okugxilisa ingqondo: Ngenxa yokuzivocavoca okuqhubekayo ekubaleni nasekusebenzeni kwezibalo, ingqondo yakho iphaphama futhi igxile. Kudingeka uphendule ngokushesha futhi uhlele ukwaziswa engqondweni yakho, okuqinisa ikhono lakho lokugcina ukwaziswa nokucabanga ngokucacile.
  3. Thuthukisa ubuhlakani nokuqamba izinto ezintsha: Ukufunda izimo namaphethini kwizibalo kukhuthaza ukucabanga okunobuhlakani nokuqamba izinto ezintsha. Izibalo zethula iphazili esekelwe emaphethini nasekulandeleni, futhi le nselele ingase ibe yilokho kanye okudingwa ubuchopho bakho ukuze ukhiqize imibono emisha nezisombululo ezintsha.
  4. Ukuthuthukisa ukuzethemba: Uma uxazulula inkinga yezibalo enzima noma uthola isixazululo senkinga eyinkimbinkimbi, ukuzethemba kwakho namandla akho engqondo kuyakhula. Phusha imikhawulo yakho bese uzibekela inselelo emkhakheni wezibalo, ukukhombisa ukuthi ungafinyelela impumelelo futhi unqobe izinselelo.
  5. Thuthukisa ukucabanga kolimi: Nakuba kungase kungabonakali kuhlobene ngokuqondile nezibalo, ukufunda le sayensi kungathuthukisa ikhono lakho lokucabanga ngokolimi nokuqonda imiqondo eyinkimbinkimbi. Ukucabanga kwezibalo kukuphushela eziphethweni ezinengqondo kanye nokuhlaziya ngokucophelela, umqondo ongadlulisela ekuxazululeni izinkinga nakweminye imikhakha.

Iyini imigomo yezibalo?

  1. izibalo zezibalo:
    Imisebenzi emine eyisisekelo kuzibalo ihlanganisa ukuhlanganisa, ukususa, ukuphindaphinda, nokuhlukanisa. Le misebenzi isetshenziselwa ukuxazulula izinkinga ze-arithmetic nokwenza izibalo ezihlukahlukene.
  2. Isikwele:
    Kuyisimo esinezinhlangothi ezine zobude obulinganayo nama-engeli amane angakwesokudla. Isikwele sichazwa ngokuthi unxande ubude bawo obuseceleni bulingana.
  3. Umbuthano:
    Kuyi-geometry echazwa njengeqoqo lamaphuzu atholakala ebangeni elinqunyiwe ukusuka endaweni eyodwa ebizwa ngokuthi isikhungo. Ubude be-dimension engaguquki iyiradiyasi yesiyingi.
  4. Unxantathu:
    Kuyisimo esinezinhlangothi ezintathu nama-engeli amathathu. Onxantathu bahlukaniswa ngokuya ngobude obuseceleni nama-engeli, njengonxantathu abalinganayo nonxantathu abama-engeli angakwesokudla.
  5. Iphiramidi:
    Iqinile yejiyomethri enezinhlangothi ezintathu ehlanganisa isisekelo esisesimweni sepholygoni kanye nezinhlangothi ezifanayo ezihlangana endaweni eyodwa ebizwa ngokuthi i-vertex.
  6. Izibalo:
    Kuyigatsha lezibalo elibhekene nokuqoqwa, ukuhlaziya, nokuchazwa kwedatha yezinombolo. Izibalo zisetshenziswa emikhakheni eyahlukene njengocwaningo, ezentengiselwano, ezemithi, nesayensi yezemvelo.
  7. ukushaya:
    Umsebenzi wezibalo osetshenziselwa ukuthola umkhiqizo wezinombolo ezimbili noma ngaphezulu. Ukuphindaphinda kuvezwa kusetshenziswa uphawu “×” noma “·”.
  8. Isibalo:
    Iwukulingana phakathi kwezinkulumo zezibalo eziqukethe okukodwa noma ngaphezulu okungaziwa. Izibalo ziyaxazululwa ukuze kutholwe amanani okungaziwa okwenza izinkulumo zilingane.
  9. Ithebula lokuphindaphinda:
    Kuyithebula elisetshenziselwa ukukhombisa imiphumela yokuphindaphinda izinombolo ukusuka ku-1 kuye ku-10. Ithebula lokuphindaphinda lisiza ngekhanda ulwazi futhi lenze imisebenzi yokuphindaphinda.

Yatholwa kanjani izibalo?

  • 1- Imvelaphi yasendulo yezibalo:
    Izisekelo zezibalo zakhiwa cishe ngo-3000 kuya ku-4000 BC. Ngaleso sikhathi, izibalo zazibhalwa ngamagama, okwaholela ekulinganiselweni ekutholeni imiqondo yezibalo.
  • 2- Iminikelo yangaphambi kwesikhathi:
    Kuwo wonke umlando, kuye kwaba nemizamo ehlangene yezizukulwane eziningi zezazi nempucuko ekuthuthukiseni izibalo. Lokhu kwaqala ngabaseBhabhiloni nabaseGibhithe lasendulo cishe ngo-3000 BC.
  • 3- Al-Khwarizmi:
    Omunye wongoti bezibalo abavelele owaziwa kakhulu emlandweni ngu-Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khwarizmi. Wazalwa ngonyaka ka-781 AD futhi ungowomdabu wasePheresiya wamaSulumane. Wakha uhlelo lokubala ne-algebra futhi wadlala indima enkulu ekucebiseni izibalo.
  • 4- Okutholwe eGibhithe:
    Kukhona nobufakazi bokutholwa kwezibalo okwenziwa abantu baseGibhithe eminyakeni eyizi-4000 edlule, nalokhu okutholwe kwabonwa kuyi-papyrus yaseGibhithe.
  • 5- Ukubaluleka kwezwe lama-Arabhu:
    Izwe lama-Arabhu laba neqhaza elibalulekile ekutholakaleni nasekuthuthukisweni kwezibalo. Ama-Arabhu angeniswa emcabangweni othi zero ngomnikelo ka-Al-Khwarizmi. Waphinde wasungula i-algebra njengesayensi ezimele ngaphandle kwe-arithmetic.
  • 6- Ukuthuthukiswa kokusetshenziswa kwezibalo:
    Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukusetshenziswa kwezibalo kanye nokusebenza kwazo ezindaweni ezihlukahlukene zokuphila kuye kwavela. Phakathi kwazo uguquko lwamafrikhwensi oluyinkimbinkimbi, futhi okunye okubaluleke kakhulu okutholwe kwizibalo ukusetshenziswa koguquko olusheshayo noluhlukile lwe-Fourier, olushintshe kakhulu umkhakha wezokuxhumana okungenantambo.
  • 7- Umthelela wezibalo kwisayensi:
    Isayensi eminingi yathonywa ukuthuthukiswa kwezibalo, njengoba ibe nomthelela ekutholakaleni nasekusetshenzisweni kwemiqondo eminingi nezinkolelo-mbono. Izibalo zisadlala indima ebalulekile ekuqondeni umhlaba wemvelo nezinye isayensi.
  • 8- Ikusasa eliqhakazile:
    Intuthuko kuzibalo kulindeleke ukuthi iqhubeke, njengoba idlala indima ebalulekile kwezobuchwepheshe kanye nokusungula izinto ezintsha. Ososayensi nabacwaningi babheke ngabomvu izinto ezintsha ezitholakele kanye nezinhlelo zokusebenza ezithuthukisa ukuqonda kwethu ngomhlaba osizungezile.

Uyini umehluko phakathi kwezibalo ne-arithmetic?

  1. incazelo:
  • Izibalo: Yisayensi efunda ubudlelwano bobuningi, obuhlelekile, kanye nejometri phakathi kwezinto nezinombolo. Izibalo zihlanganisa amagatsha afana ne-algebra, i-geometry, nezibalo.
  • I-Arithmetic: Igatsha lezibalo elibhekene kakhulu nemisebenzi eyisisekelo njengokuhlanganisa, ukususa, ukuphindaphinda, nokuhlukanisa, futhi isetshenziselwa ukuxazulula izinkinga ze-arithmetic.
  1. Ububanzi besicelo:
  • Izibalo: Izibalo ziningi kakhulu futhi ziyinkimbinkimbi kune-arithmetic. Ifunda imiqondo eminingi kanye nethiyori esetshenziswa emikhakheni eyahlukene njengobunjiniyela, isayensi yedatha, kanye nesayensi yamathuba.
  • I-Arithmetic: I-Arithmetic igxile kakhulu ekusebenzeni kwezibalo eziyisisekelo kanye nokusebenza kwazo okungokoqobo ekuphileni kwansuku zonke, njengokubala izindleko, ukuphathwa kwemali, nokuhweba.
  1. Umqondo:
  • Izibalo: Izibalo wuhlelo lwemiqondo, imithetho, kanye nethiyori encike ekucabangeni nasekucabangeni kwengqondo ukuxazulula izinkinga.
  • I-Arithmetic: I-Arithmetic igxile embonweni womuntu siqu wezinombolo nokusebenza, nokuthi izinombolo zisetshenziswa kanjani ekusebenzeni kwe-accounting nokuhweba.
  1. Ukuziphendukela kwemvelo nokuhlukahluka:
  • Izibalo: Izibalo zihlala zishintshashintsha futhi zihlanganisa imiqondo ejulile kanye nethiyori eyinkimbinkimbi njengokuguquguqukayo, i-calculus, ne-algebra yomugqa.
  • I-Arithmetic: Iwukusetshenziswa okungokoqobo kwezibalo eziyisisekelo ekuxazululeni izinkinga ze-arithmetic kanye nokusebenza okujwayelekile.
  1. Ukugxila kwe-Epistemological:
  • Izibalo: Izibalo ziphathelene nokuqonda umqondo kanye nesakhiwo sengqondo sezinombolo, ukucabanga okunengqondo, kanye nokuthola imiphumela.
  • I-Arithmetic: I-arithmetic igxile ekusebenziseni imithetho nemithetho ethile ukuxazulula izinkinga nokwenza imisebenzi yezibalo.

Iliphi igatsha lezibalo elinzima kakhulu?

Eqinisweni, akwenzeki ukuba kuqokwe igatsha elilodwa lezibalo njengelinzima kunawo wonke. Abantu bangahluka ngamakhono nezithakazelo zabo, okwenza amanye amagatsha abe inselele kwabanye abantu kanti amanye angabi yinselele.

Nokho, kukhona amanye amagatsha okuthiwa anzima kakhulu kunamanye. Phakathi kwalawa magatsha:

  1. Ithiyori yezinombolo: Ithiyori yezinombolo iqoqo lemibono eyinkimbinkimbi nemiqondo ephathelene nezinombolo eziphelele, izinombolo ezinengqondo, izinombolo eziyinkimbinkimbi, nezinombolo eziyinhloko. Ukuqonda izici zalezi zinombolo nokuzisebenzisa ekuxazululeni izinkinga kuyinselele enkulu.
  2. I-Calculus: I-Calculus ingesinye sezisekelo zezibalo ezisetshenziswayo. Leli gatsha lidinga ukuqonda okujulile komqondo wokuphuma kokunye nokuhlanganisa, kanye nekhono lokuxazulula izinkinga eziyinkimbinkimbi kusetshenziswa amasu okubala.
  3. I-Analytical Geometry kanye neVector Space: Lawa magatsha abhekana nocwaningo lomumo nezikhala kusetshenziswa izibalo nokuhlaziya izibalo. Lawa magatsha adinga ukuqonda okujulile kwe-algebra, i-geometry, kanye nokubala.
  4. Amathuba: Igatsha lemiqondo yezifundo zamathuba ahlobene namathuba, amathuba, kanye nemicimbi ezimele kanye ne-orthogonal. Imiqondo okungenzeka kube nzima ukuyiqonda nokusebenzisa ukuxazulula izinkinga eziyinkimbinkimbi.

Ukukhetha igatsha lezibalo elinzima kakhulu kuncike emakhonweni namakhono omuntu. Abanye abantu bangase bakuthole kunzima ukubala, kuyilapho abanye bethola isigaba sethiyori yezinombolo sinzima kakhulu. Ngakho-ke, kuhle kakhulu ukuthi abantu bahlole amakhono abo kanye nokuthambekela kwabo ngaphambi kokukhetha igatsha elithile lezibalo abazolifunda noma bagxile kulo.

Shiya amazwana

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