Ulwazi mayelana ne-chemistry futhi yiziphi izisekelo zamakhemikhali?

samar sam
2023-09-09T14:28:42+02:00
ulwazi oluvamile
samar samIhlolwe ngu NancySepthemba 9, 2023Isibuyekezo sokugcina: ezinyangeni ezi-10 ezedlule

Ulwazi mayelana ne-chemistry

I-Chemistry ithathwa njengenye yesayensi eyisisekelo enentshisekelo enkulu esintwini, njengoba iphathelene nocwaningo lwendaba, ukwakheka kwayo, izakhiwo, kanye nokusebenzisana. Ikhabhoni, umoya-mpilo, ne-hydrogen kuphakathi kwezinto ezibaluleke kakhulu ezakha umzimba womuntu, njengoba lezi zakhi zakha cishe u-99% wesisindo somzimba.

I-Chemistry ichazwa njengocwaningo lokuhlangana kwamakhemikhali namakhemikhali, futhi idlala indima ebalulekile ekuphileni kwethu kwansuku zonke. Imikhiqizo esiyisebenzisa nsuku zonke, njengemithi, insipho, ukudla, nemibala, konke kuncike ezimisweni zamakhemikhali.

I-Chemistry ihlukaniswe yaba amagatsha amakhulu amaningana, okuhlanganisa i-analytical chemistry, i-organic chemistry, i-inorganic chemistry, i-physical chemistry, kanye ne-biochemistry. I-analytical chemistry iphathelene nezindlela zokufunda zokuhlaziya izinto zokwakha nokuthola ukwakheka kwazo, kuyilapho i-organic chemistry igxile ezintweni zokufunda eziqukethe ikhabhoni. I-Inorganic chemistry iphathelene nocwaningo lwezinto ezingenayo ikhabhoni, kuyilapho ikhemistri ephathekayo iphathelene nocwaningo lwezimo ezibonakalayo ezihlobene nezinto zamakhemikhali.

I-Chemistry iphethe ulwazi oluningi olumangalisayo, njengoba i-helium iyisici sesibili esitholakala ngobuningi endaweni yonke ngemva kwe-hydrogen. Ngenxa yezinhlelo zokusebenza zamakhemikhali, singakwazi ukwenza amalebula ethebula lezakhi zamakhemikhali ngesi-Arabhu, futhi lokhu kusiza ukuqonda kangcono izinto nezinto zazo.

I-Chemistry iyisayensi esebenzayo nethokozisayo engena ezimpilweni zethu kuzo zonke izici. Ngokuqonda kwethu izisekelo zekhemistri, singakwazi ukulawula ukusebenzisana kwezinto futhi sizisebenzise ukuze sithuthukise ubuchwepheshe obuningi nemikhiqizo ezuzisa umphakathi.

Yiziphi izisekelo zamakhemikhali?

I-Chemistry ibhekwa njengenye yesayensi eyisisekelo ephathelene nocwaningo lwendaba nezinguquko zayo, okuhlanganisa izakhiwo zayo, isakhiwo, ukwakheka, ukuziphatha, kanye nokusebenzisana. I-Chemistry isayensi eyinkimbinkimbi edinga ukutadisha ngokucophelela nokulandelelwa ukuze uyiqonde ngokugcwele. Ngokunaka izinto eziyisisekelo zamakhemikhali, abafundi kanye nabantu abanentshisekelo bangagwema amaphutha avamile futhi baqonde kahle imiqondo eyisisekelo.

Ucwaningo lwamakhemikhali ajwayelekile lugxile ezimisweni eziyisisekelo nemiqondo yekhemistri, njengesakhiwo se-athomu nokusatshalaliswa kwezinto ngogesi, ithebula lezikhathi ezithile kanye nokusabalalisa ngogesi, kanye namabhondi ezinto. Ukuqonda le mibono kusiza ukwakha isisekelo esiqinile solwazi lwamakhemikhali.

I-Organic chemistry nayo iyingxenye eyisisekelo ye-chemistry, njengoba isekelwe kuqoqo lezinsika eziyisisekelo kanye nezinsika ezimisiwe. Ekutadisheni i-organic chemistry, abafundi bafunda ngama-hydrocarbons, imisebenzi ye-organic, ukusabela kwe-organic, neminye imiqondo ehlobene.

Yiziphi izisekelo zamakhemikhali?

Kungani i-chemistry yanikezwa leli gama?

Ukunikeza isayensi yamakhemikhali leli gama kungenxa yezincazelo ezihlobene nezici zale sayensi. Igama elithi “chemistry” libhekisela ekufihleni izimfihlo nokukhiqizwa.” Igama elithi “chemistry” lisuselwa egameni lesiGreki elithi “quantum,” elisho into efihliwe noma imfihlo efihliwe.

Igama elithi isayensi laqala ngenxa yezinkolelo ezazivamile eNkathini Ephakathi, lapho le sayensi yasakazwa eqenjini elithile labantu. Kulo mongo, igama lekhemikhali uJabir bin Hayyan Al-Sufi lalihlotshaniswa nokuthuthukiswa kwalesi sayensi, futhi igama elithi "chemistry yasendulo" lakhethwa ngokusekelwe kulokhu.

Ubani owaba ngowokuqala ukwazi i-chemistry?

Kuyo yonke iminyaka, isayensi ye-chemistry iye yathuthuka futhi yasabalala emiphakathini namasiko amaningana, kodwa ama-Arabhu abhekwa njengabanegalelo elibalulekile kulo mkhakha. Ukusungulwa kwesayensi yamakhemikhali kuthiwa kwenziwa usosayensi ongumSulumane uJaber bin Hayyan bin Abdullah Al-Azdi, ogama lakhe lesidlaliso linguBariq, futhi ungowokudabuka e-Arab.

U-Jabir ibn Hayyan, owaziwa ngegama lakhe lesiLatini elithi Geber, uthathwa njengephayona lokuqala nomsunguli wesayensi yamakhemikhali. Encwadini yakhe ethi Divine Science, uJabir ibn Hayyan wanikeza incazelo yesayensi yamakhemikhali, eyichaza “njengegatsha lesayensi yemvelo elihlola izici zamaminerali nezinto zezitshalo.”

Uguquko lwangempela lwavela kusayensi ye-chemistry ngenxa kaJaber bin Hayyan, njengoba ebambe iqhaza ekuthuthukisweni kwemibono nezincazelo zezenzakalo zamakhemikhali. Wayebizwa ngokuthi “uBaba Wekhemistry,” futhi kukholakala ukuthi wabhala amaphepha angu-22 echaza izindlela zokukhipha i-distillation, icrystallization, kanye ne-sublimation.

Kusukela endleleni yesayensi elandelwa uJabir bin Hayyan kanye nempumelelo yakhe emkhakheni wamakhemikhali, isintu sivuna izinzuzo eziningi nolwazi olubalulekile. Umlando ka-Jabir ibn Hayyan namagalelo akhe kukhemistri kuyingxenye ebalulekile yefa lesayensi lama-Arab.

Yatholwa nini i-chemistry?

Umlando wamakhemikhali ubuyela emuva ezikhathini zasendulo, lapho i-chemistry ekuqaleni yayihlotshaniswa nokwakhiwa kwamathuluzi nokutholakala kwezinye izinsimbi. Ngokobufakazi bemivubukulo, kubonisa ukuthi umuntu wasebenzisa i-chemistry ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene esigabeni sokuqala.

Ngesikhathi esifanayo, insimbi yensimbi yatholwa abaseGibhithe lasendulo. Ezikhathini zasendulo, ukuhlola kwamakhemikhali, kuhlanganise nokutholakala kwezinsimbi, kwakuphakathi kwemisebenzi evelele yososayensi.

Akungabazeki ukuthi i-chemistry iye yathuthuka eminyakeni edlule futhi ibone ukutholwa okuningi okubalulekile nokuhlola okubambe iqhaza ekuthuthukisweni kwale sayensi.

Usosayensi uJaber bin Hayyan wayengomunye wososayensi abavelele ababa nesandla ekuthuthukisweni kwamakhemikhali. UJaber bin Hayyan wasebenzisa izindlela zesayensi ukuze atadishe futhi ahlaziye izinto zokwakha, okwamenza wabheka njengowokuqala ukuzuza ezisekelweni zesayensi kulo mkhakha.

Ngokusekelwe ocwaningweni lwesayensi kanye nobufakazi bomlando, kunemibono eminingi mayelana nokuthi isayensi ye-chemistry yatholakala nini ngokuphelele, futhi ukuhlaziywa kwezinto zasendulo kubonisa ukuthi akunakwenzeka ukucacisa lokhu ngokunembile.

Ngokuvamile, kungashiwo ukuthi ukuqala kwe-chemistry kungalandelelwa emuva esigabeni sokuqala somlando, njengoba le sayensi yathuthuka kancane kancane futhi yabona intuthuko enkulu phakathi neminyaka.

Ucwaningo nge-chemistry - isihloko

Iyini inhloso yamakhemikhali?

I-Chemistry ihlanganisa isayensi eyisisekelo nesetshenziswayo, njengoba iphathelene nocwaningo nokuhlaziywa kwendaba, ukusebenzisana kwayo nezakhiwo, futhi ifuna ukuqonda indlela yokuziphatha nokushintsha kwezinto ngaphansi kwezimo ezahlukahlukene. I-Chemistry ihlehlela emuva ezinkulungwaneni zeminyaka, lapho yayithathwa njengobuciko nethuluzi lokuthola nokuzuza ulwazi.

Umgomo oyinhloko wamakhemikhali ukunikeza ukuqonda okujulile nokulawula izinto kanye nokusebenzisana kwazo. Ngokufunda ikhemistri, singaqonda ukuthi izinto zisebenzisana kanjani kanye namandla, nokuthi singakusebenzisa kanjani lokhu kuqonda ukuze sifinyelele imigomo eminingi.

I-Chemistry inezinhlelo zokusebenza eziningi nemigomo eyahlukene ekuphileni kwethu kwansuku zonke nakweminye imikhakha eminingi. Sisho eminye yemigomo ebaluleke kakhulu ye-chemistry esetshenzisiwe kanje:

  1. Ukuthuthukiswa Komkhiqizo Nokwenziwa: I-Chemistry idlala indima ebalulekile ekuthuthukisweni nasekukhiqizeni imikhiqizo efrijini emhlabeni wonke. Ngokuqonda izakhiwo nokusebenzisana kwezinto, singaklama futhi sithuthukise izinto ezintsha nemikhiqizo ehlangabezana nezidingo zethu ezihlukahlukene.
  2. Ukunakekelwa kwezempilo: Ikhemikhali yezokwelapha iyigatsha elibalulekile lekhemistri esetshenziswayo, lapho ulwazi lwamakhemikhali lusetshenziselwa ukuthuthukisa izidakamizwa nokwelashwa. I-Chemistry iphinde ibe neqhaza ekuhlaziyeni izidakamizwa, ukuhlolwa kwezokwelapha, kanye nokwakhiwa kwezindlela zokuxilonga nokwelapha izifo.
  3. Ukulondoloza indawo ezungezile: I-Chemistry inegalelo ekuthuthukisweni kobuchwepheshe obusha nezinto zokwakha ukuze kuncishiswe ukungcola nokuthuthukisa izinga lamanzi nomoya. I-Chemistry idlala indima ebalulekile ekuthuthukiseni amandla avuselelekayo kanye nobunye ubuchwepheshe bemvelo.
  4. Ezolimo Nokudla: I-Chemistry isiza ekuhlaziyeni umhlabathi, ukuthola imisoco edingekayo ekukhuleni kwezitshalo, ukuhlaziya imisoco ekudleni, nokuthuthukisa izindlela zokukhiqiza nokugcina ukudla.

Yiziphi amagatsha amakhemikhali?

I-Chemistry ibhekwa njengenye yesayensi eyisisekelo ephathelene nocwaningo lwendaba kanye nezinguquko ezenzeka kuyo. I-Chemistry idingida ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali kwezinhlanganisela nezakhi, ukusebenzisana kwazo, kanye nomthelela wazo endaweni kanye nempilo.

Amagatsha amakhemikhali ahlukaniswe amagatsha amaningana amakhulu:

  1. I-Organic Chemistry: Leli gatsha libhekene nocwaningo lwezinto eziphilayo eziqukethe i-element carbon. Kuleli gatsha, kugxilwe ekulungiseleleni nasekuhlanganiseni izinto eziphilayo kanye nokusetshenziswa kwazo ekuphileni.
  2. I-Inorganic chemistry: Leli gatsha lifunda izinhlanganisela ze-inorganic ezingaqukethe i-element carbon. Kugxilwe kuleli gatsha ekuhlaziyeni nasekuhlanganiseni izinhlanganisela kanye nocwaningo lwezakhiwo nokusetshenziswa kwazo.
  3. I-Analytical Chemistry: Leli gatsha liphathelene nokuthuthukisa nokusebenzisa izindlela zokuhlaziya ukuze kutholwe ukugcwala kwezinhlanganisela zamakhemikhali kumasampuli. Leli gatsha lisetshenziswa emikhakheni eminingi efana nezimboni, ezemithi, nokuvikelwa kwemvelo.
  4. I-Physical Chemistry: Leli gatsha lihlanganisa i-chemistry ne-physics. Kuphathelene nokutadisha izenzakalo zamakhemikhali nokusabela ngokusebenzisa imiqondo engokwenyama efana nokushisa, ingcindezi, nokusabela kwe-kinetic.
  5. I-Biochemistry: Leli gatsha ligxile kakhulu ekufundeni ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali ezingxenyeni zamaseli ezintweni eziphilayo. Leli gatsha ligxile ekuqondeni nasekuhlaziyeni ukusabela kwamakhemikhali okwenzeka ezinqubweni zokuphila.

Ubizwa ngani umuntu oneziqu ze-chemistry?

Ngemuva kokuphothula izifundo zabo kukhemistry, kunezihloko eziningi zemisebenzi ezingabanjwa yiziqu ze-chemistry. Esinye salezi zihloko sithi “uchwepheshe waselabhorethri,” lapho othweswe iziqu enamakhono nolwazi oludingekayo ukuze asebenze ezindaweni zokucwaninga amakhemikhali. Uchwepheshe waselabhorethri ubhekana nokuhlaziya amasampula kanye nokwenza izivivinyo ukuze athole inhlanganisela yamakhemikhali futhi ahlole imiphumela yokuhlaziya.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, umuntu oneziqu zamakhemikhali angafaka isicelo sesihloko somsebenzi esithi “uchwepheshe waselabhorethri,” lapho uchwepheshe edlala indima yokusiza uchwepheshe waselabhorethri ekwenzeni imisebenzi yakhe. Umsebenzi wochwepheshe baselabhorethri uhlanganisa ukuqoqa amasampula kanye nokuba negalelo ekwenzeni ukuhlaziya kwaselabhorethri.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngemva kokuba othweswe iziqu ethole iziqu zaseyunivesithi kwezokuthakwa kwamakhemikhali, kuvulwa imikhakha ebanzi yomsebenzi phambi kwakhe. Umuntu oneziqu zamakhemikhali angasebenza emkhakheni wezobunhloli, ahlaziye futhi afunde izinto ezihambisana nobugebengu namacala omthetho.

Futhi, umuntu oneziqu angasebenza embonini yezemithi njengomcwaningi wokuthuthukiswa kwamakhemikhali. Umcwaningi usebenza ekuhlaziyeni nasekuhloleni amakhemikhali asetshenziswa embonini yezemithi, nokwenza ngcono ukwakheka kwawo nokusebenza kwawo ngempumelelo.

Ulwazi mayelana chemistry ngokuvamile - Encyclopedia

Ubani owasungula i-chemistry equations?

Ukuthuthukiswa kwamakhemikhali kuwo wonke umlando kwakulinganiselwe ebukhoneni bososayensi abaningi abasungula imiqondo eminingi kanye nemibono ehlobene nesayensi yezinto zokwakha kanye nokusebenzisana kwazo. Kulaba sosayensi bokudala kugqama uJaber bin Hayyan, usosayensi odumile wama-Arab owabamba iqhaza elikhulu ekuthuthukisweni komkhakha wamakhemikhali.

UJabir ibn Hayyan wayeyisazi se-Arab Muslim sekhulu lesi-XNUMX AD. Iminikelo yakhe yesayensi emkhakheni wamakhemikhali kanye nezinto eziningi azisungulile zibhekwa njengengxenye evelele kakhulu emlandweni wale sayensi. U-Jabir bin Hayyan uphumelele emikhakheni eminingana yesayensi ehlanganisa ikhemistri, isayensi yezinkanyezi, ubunjiniyela, i-mineralogy, ifilosofi, kanye nezokwelapha.

Phakathi kwezinto ezisunguliwe uJaber bin Hayyan athi uzenze kuyena ukusungulwa kwe-quantum mechanics, noma i-physics. I-Quantum mechanics iyiqembu lemibono yezemvelo eyavela ekhulwini lamashumi amabili, iphenya umhlaba ngezinto ezincane kakhulu nezishesha kakhulu.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, usokhemisi odumile waseBrithani uRobert Boyle ungomunye wososayensi ababa negalelo elikhulu emkhakheni wamakhemikhali futhi basungula izilinganiso zokusabela. UBoyle wazalwa ngo-1627 futhi washona ngo-1691, futhi ubuciko bakhe emkhakheni wesayensi yamakhemikhali bubhekwa njengengxenye ebaluleke kakhulu emlandweni wale sayensi.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ufanelwe ukutuswa usosayensi odumile waseSweden u-Alfred Nobel owazalwa ngo-1833 futhi wafa ngo-1896. UNobel udume ngokusungula kwakhe i-dynamite nokuthola kwakhe i-nitroglycerin, okuwumsebenzi obalulekile owasungulwa emkhakheni wamakhemikhali nobuchwepheshe.

Akumelwe sikhohlwe intela kumakhemikhali waseFrance uJoseph Gay-Lussac, owasungula umthetho weGay-Lussac ngo-1808, obhekwa njengenye yemithetho eyisisekelo emkhakheni we-chemistry. Umthetho uthi kukhona ukuhlobana okuphambene phakathi kwezinga lokushisa nomthamo wegesi.

Ubani usokhemisi wesimanje?

Usosayensi omkhulu ongumFulentshi u-Antoine Lavoisier uthathwa njengoyise wesayensi yamakhemikhali yesimanje, njengoba ethathwa njengomunye wososayensi abanekhono ababa nesandla ekusungulweni nasekuthuthukisweni kwamakhemikhali esimanje. U-Lavoisier wazalwa ngo-1743 AD futhi wafa ngo-1794 AD. Wayedume ngezimpumelelo zakhe ezivelele zesayensi emhlabeni we-chemistry.

Kodwa-ke, usosayensi wama-Arab Muslim u-Jabir ibn Hayyan naye uthathwa njengomsunguli we-chemistry yesimanje nesimanje. UJabir bin Hayyan uthathwa njengomunye wezazi eziqavile zama-Arab Muslim ezaphumelela kulo mkhakha. UJabir bin Hayyan wenza iminikelo eminingi eyigugu kwezakhemikhali nakwezokwelapha, ngakho wabizwa ngokuthi “uBaba Wesayensi Yekhemikhali Yesimanje.”

Ososayensi abaningi emhlabeni bakholelwa ukuthi uJabir bin Hayyan wabeka izisekelo zesayensi zamakhemikhali esimanje nesimanje, futhi ososayensi abaningi baseNtshonalanga baye bakufakazela lokhu. Kungase futhi kuqashelwe ukuthi uJabir bin Hayyan uthathwa njengomuntu wokuqala ukusebenzisa igama elithi “chemistry” ekuqambeni le sayensi.

Ngakho-ke, u-Jaber bin Hayyan no-Antoine Lavoisier bangososayensi ababili abavelele ababa nesandla ekuthuthukisweni kwamakhemikhali esimanje kanye nokuthandwa kwawo emibuthanweni yesayensi. Ngeminikelo yabo, kuye kwasungulwa izisekelo zesayensi eziqinile neziphelele ezivula indlela yokutholwa okuningi kanye nokusetshenziswa okungokoqobo emkhakheni wamakhemikhali. Namuhla, umhlaba uyazuza kule minikelo emikhakheni eminingana, okuhlanganisa imboni yesimanje yezokwelapha, i-biotechnology, neminye imikhakha eminingi.

U-Jabir bin Hayyan kanye no-Antoine Lavoisier babhekwa njengososayensi abakhulu emhlabeni wesayensi yamakhemikhali yesimanje.

Yini eyafundiswa ku-chemistry esikhathini esidlule?

I-Chemistry isayensi ehlola indaba kanye nezinguquko zayo, okuhlanganisa izakhiwo zayo, isakhiwo, ukwakheka, ukuziphatha, kanye nokusebenzisana. Kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo, isayensi yamakhemikhali inezinhloso zayo kanye nentuthuko.

Esikhathini esedlule, umgomo oyinhloko wososayensi emkhakheni wesayensi yamakhemikhali kwakuwukuguqula izinsimbi ezindala, ezishibhile zibe izinsimbi eziyigugu njengegolide namadayimane. Ezinye izindaba nezinsumansumane zasendulo ziye zasakazwa ezibonisa ukuthi isayensi yesayensi yokuthakwa kwamakhemikhali yaphefumulelwa uNkulunkulu uSomandla futhi yembule kuMose bin Imran.

I-Alchemy yaqala njengefilosofi yasendulo ephathelene nocwaningo lwezinguquko kanye nezinguquko endabeni kanye nezinhlamvu ze-cosmic. Izazi ze-alchem ​​zakha amathuluzi afana ne-alembic, eyasungulwa isazi samaSulumane u-Ibn Hayyan ukuze acwengisise futhi afunde ama-asidi. Futhi, u-Ibn Hayyan wasungula isimiso esisekelwe ezintweni zamakhemikhali awafunda.

Ososayensi abangamaSulumane basebenzisa usawoti wesibhamu, i-potassium nitrate, ukuze bathole izibhamu, futhi basebenzisa amandla aphehla isibhamu ukuze bafeze lokhu. Naphezu kokutholwa kwabo kanye negalelo elikhulu ekuthuthukiseni umkhakha we-chemistry, i-chemistry yayiyisayensi enecala ngaleso sikhathi, njengoba abanye abantu babekholelwa ukuthi noma ubani osebenza kulo mkhakha wayengumthakathi noma umthakathi.

Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukuqonda kwamakhemikhali kwathuthuka, futhi ososayensi baqala ukusebenzisa ulwazi lwabo emikhakheni eminingi. Ngenxa yesayensi yamakhemikhali, abantu bakwazile ukuthuthukisa amasu namathuluzi afaka isandla ekuthuthukiseni izimpilo zabo zansuku zonke. Ngokwesibonelo, abantu basebenzisa amakhemikhali ukuze bapheke ukudla, futhi lena kwakuyinqubo yokuqala yamakhemikhali eyenziwa abantu.

Amasiko amaningi nempucuko iye yathonywa isayensi yokuthakwa kwamakhemikhali, futhi la mathonya abonakala ezincwadini nasezincwadini ezikhuluma ngokwenziwa kwegolide nezinhlobo ezihlukahlukene zezinsimbi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-chemistry yayisetshenziswa ezikhathini zasendulo ukuguqula izinsimbi ezishibhile zibe izinsimbi ezibalulekile njengegolide nesiliva.

Ngamafuphi, i-chemistry esikhathini esidlule yayihlola izici ezihlukahlukene zento nokuthi zixhumana kanjani futhi zashintsha kanjani. Ngokuthuthuka okuphawulekayo kulo mkhakha, ulwazi lwamakhemikhali lusetshenziswe emikhakheni eminingi futhi lwenza ngcono izimpilo zabantu.

Ithini incazelo yegama elithi chemistry?

I-Chemistry yaziwa njengesayensi efunda izakhiwo zezinto, ukwakheka kwazo, ukwakheka kwazo, ukuguqulwa ezibhekana nakho, namandla eziwakhiqizayo. Amagama amaningana asetshenziswa ukuchaza amakhemikhali, njengokuthi “isayensi ephathelene nezakhi zezakhi nezinhlanganisela nemithetho elawula ukusebenzisana kwazo” kanye “nesayensi ephathelene nemvelo yemizimba elula, izici zayo, izinhlanganisela eziphakamayo. kubo, njalonjalo.”

Kuwo wonke umlando, izazi eziningi ziye zaphawula ukuthi umsuka wegama elithi “chemistry” ungase ubuyele emagameni aseGibhithe lasendulo athi “kym” noma “kent,” okusho umhlabathi omnyama noma inhlabathi yaseSigodini SaseNayile. Lawa magama abhekisela ebudlelwaneni bomlando phakathi kwekhemistri kanye nendima yayo ekuqondeni izakhiwo zezinto kanye nokuguqulwa kwazo.

Isifundo samakhemikhali esikoleni sihlose ukufundisa abafundi ngale sayensi ebalulekile futhi baqonde ukuthi izinto zakhiwa kanjani, zisebenzelana kanjani futhi zithintana kanjani. Ukusabela kwamakhemikhali yilapho into eyodwa ithinta enye, futhi imiphumela yokusabela idlula amaqiniso ento ngokwayo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-nuclei ye-nuclear iyigatsha elibalulekile lekhemistri elihlanganisa ukucwaninga kokusabela kwamakhemikhali okubandakanya ukuhlangana kwe-nuclei ye-athomu kanye nokuguqulwa kwama-isotopes. Ukuqonda le sayensi yesimanje kunendima ebalulekile emikhakheni eminingi, ehlanganisa amandla, imithi, nezimboni.

Sekukonke, ikhemistri iyinkambu ebalulekile enomthelela ekuqondeni kwethu umhlaba osizungezile futhi isenza sikwazi ukuthuthuka kwezesayensi nobuchwepheshe.

Shiya amazwana

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